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What is an Emerging Disease in Bangladesh?

Emerging Disease in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is currently facing significant public health challenges due to emerging diseases. Understanding these diseases, their impacts, and measures to combat them is critical for the country’s health infrastructure.

  • According to NCBI, some emerging diseases in Bangladesh include: Lymphatic filariasis, Trachoma, Soil-transmitted helminths, Leprosy, Guinea worms, Visceral leishmaniasis. [1]
  • The Nipah virus was first discovered in 1998 in Malaysia and was first seen in Bangladesh in 2001. The Nipah virus causes yearly outbreaks of encephalitis in Bangladesh, with more than 75% case fatality. [2], [3]
  • According to Baylor College of Medicine, emerging infectious diseases are infections that have recently appeared within a population or those whose incidence or geographic range is rapidly increasing or threatens to increase in the near future. [4]
  • According to Wikipedia, tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous chronic infectious diseases in Bangladesh. It is the major public health problem in this country. [5]

Historical Context

Bangladesh has a history of dealing with infectious diseases, with past outbreaks teaching valuable lessons in public health management. These experiences have shaped current responses to emerging diseases.

The Current Emerging Disease in Bangladesh: An Overview

Currently, Bangladesh is grappling with two major health threats: Nipah virus infection and dengue. The Nipah virus, a seasonal occurrence, has shown an uptick in cases and deaths in 2023, raising concerns nationally and regionally. Dengue, on the other hand, has seen an unprecedented surge in cases and deaths in 2023, attributed to climatic conditions favorable for mosquito breeding​​​​. [6]

Statistical Analysis of the Disease’s Impact

As of February 2023, Bangladesh reported 11 cases of Nipah virus infection, with a high case fatality rate of 73%. Dengue has been even more widespread, with over 69,000 cases and 327 deaths reported between January and August 2023. The demographic analysis indicates a wide age range affected by these diseases, from infants to the elderly​​​​. [7]

Factors Contributing to the Emergence and Spread

Environmental and climatic factors, such as increased rainfall and temperature, are significant contributors to the spread of these diseases. Socio-economic factors and challenges in healthcare infrastructure also play crucial roles.

Government and Healthcare Response

The government has implemented multi sectoral responses, including enhanced surveillance, case management, and public health campaigns. Both diseases have prompted specific government policies and initiatives, with significant focus on awareness and prevention strategies​​​​.

Personal and Community Prevention Strategies

Preventive measures such as personal hygiene, community-level interventions, and, where applicable, vaccination campaigns, are critical in combating these emerging diseases.

The Global Context

The situation in Bangladesh can be compared to similar disease outbreaks in other countries, highlighting the importance of international aid and collaboration in addressing global public health challenges.

Future Outlook

Based on current trends, future challenges include managing the spread of these diseases and harnessing innovations in healthcare for more effective responses. The importance of continued vigilance and research in this area is paramount.


Addressing emerging diseases in Bangladesh requires collective action from government entities, healthcare professionals, and the public. This article underscores the importance of understanding and responding to these health challenges for the wellbeing of the nation.

References and Further Reading

For more detailed information, readers are encouraged to explore academic and government sources, as well as reports from international health organizations.

  1. Emerging diseases in Bangladesh: Current microbiological research perspective
  2. The global and local context of emerging and re-emerging infections
  3. Nipah virus and other emerging infections
  4. Emerging Infectious Diseases
  5. Health in Bangladesh
  6. Dengue – Bangladesh
  7. Nipah virus infection – Bangladesh
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